Vitamin C

Is one of the safest and most effective nutrients, experts say. Though it may not be the cure for the common cold, the benefits of vitamin C may include protection against immune system deficiencies, cardiovascular disease, prenatal health problems, eye disease, and even skin wrinkling. The tolerable upper intake level (or the maximum amount you can take in a day that likely won’t cause harm) is 2000 mg a day for adults. A recent study published in Seminars in Preventive and Alternative Medicine that looked at over 100 studies over 10 years revealed a growing list of possible benefits of vitamin C. "Vitamin C has received a great deal of attention, and with good reason. Higher blood levels of vitamin C may be the ideal nutrition marker for overall health," says study researcher Mark Moyad, MD, MPH, of the University of Michigan. "The more we study vitamin C, the better our understanding of how diverse it is in protecting our health, from cardiovascular, cancer, stroke, eye health [and] immunity to living longer."

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is an essential vitamin that helps your body absorb calcium and phosphorus. Not enough vitamin D -- a vitamin D deficiency -- can cause pain, hormone problems, muscle weakness, and more.

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Zinc

It’s a mineral your cells need to fight off bacteria and viruses and make the genetic material, called DNA, that tells your body how to work the way it should. It helps you heal wounds, aids your senses of smell and taste, and is important for infants and children as they grow.

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Turmeric Root Extract

Turmeric and especially its most active compound curcumin have many scientifically-proven health benefits, such as the potential to prevent heart disease, Alzheimer's and cancer. It's a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant and may also help improve symptoms of depression and arthritis

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Ginger Root Extract

Ginger is high in gingerol, a substance with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties.

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Green Tea Leaf Extract

Is loaded with polyphenol antioxidants, including a catechin called EGCG. Green tea contains less caffeine than coffee but enough to produce an effect. It also contains the amino acid L-theanine, which can work synergistically with caffeine to improve brain function.

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Elderberry Fruit

The berries and flowers of elderberry are packed with antioxidants and vitamins that may boost your immune system. They could help tame inflammation, lessen stress, and help protect your heart, too. Some experts recommend elderberry to help prevent and ease cold and flu symptoms

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Black Garlic Bulb

With its antioxidants, black garlic can help reduce inflammation in the body and prevent cognitive conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. It may also help to improve memory and other parts of cognitive function.

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Reishi Mushroom

Reishi mushroom can enhance immune function through its effects on white blood cells, which help fight infection.

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Echinacea Purpurea (Asteraceae)

Is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects.

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Black Pepper Fruit Extract

Offers health benefits thanks to its bioactive compounds, with piperine being the most important. Piperine is considered a type of antioxidant that helps to lower the risk of chronic illnesses like atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and neurological conditions. This compound has a positive effect on nutrient bioavailability as well. When you add black pepper to your meal, you increase the amount of nutrients absorbed into your bloodstream.

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Resveratrol

Is a natural chemical compound found in grapes, red wine, and other foods. As a supplement, resveratrol has been promoted as a treatment for many conditions -- including aging itself. Researchers have long believed that substances in red wine might have health benefits. Drinking red wine in moderation may be associated with a lower risk of heart disease. Beginning in the 1990s, experts began to focus on resveratrol, an antioxidant compound in red wine. Since then, some animal and lab studies have shown that resveratrol has promising antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects.

However, resveratrol supplements have not been well studied in people. We don't really know what benefits and risks they might have. We also don't know if resveratrol is necessarily more important than some of the other natural substances in wine. Nonetheless, resveratrol has become a popular supplement. People use it for many conditions. Some take resveratrol supplements to try to prevent or treat serious diseases, like cancer or heart disease. Others hope that they will slow the aging process. For now, these uses are unsupported by evidence.

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Cinnamon Bark

Contains large amounts of highly potent polyphenol antioxidants. The antioxidants in cinnamon have anti-inflammatory effects, which may help lower your risk of disease. Cinnamon may improve some key risk factors for heart disease, including cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure. Cinnamon has been shown to significantly increase sensitivity to the hormone insulin.

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Grape Seed Extract

Are rich in antioxidants, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, flavonoids, and oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs). In fact, GSE is one of the best-known sources of proanthocyanidins

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L-Glutathione

Is a peptide found in plants and animals. It is a powerful antioxidant produced by the liver to protect the body against free radicals, peroxides, and heavy metals. Glutathione also eliminates poisons such as drugs and pollutants from our bodies.

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Ashwagandha Root Extract

It’s been used in traditional Indian Ayurvedic medicine for thousands of years to ease pain and inflammation, treat insomnia, and boost nutrition, along with other conditions. Ashwagandha is also considered an adaptogen. That means it helps your body better manage stress. Much of the research on ashwagandha’s benefits has been done on animals, so experts can’t say for sure how well it works. But here are some things this herbal supplement might help with.

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GABA

Is taken by mouth for relieving anxiety, improving mood, reducing symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used for promoting lean muscle growth, burning fat, stabilizing blood pressure, and relieving pain.

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5-THP

Is an amino acid. Amino acids are substances that build proteins in your body. 5-HTP is related to serotonin, a brain chemical that affects mood, sleep, and pain. It is available as a supplement and is generally considered safe, although some contaminated supplements have caused dangerous side effects.

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St. John Wort Extrat

Is most commonly used for depression and mood disorders. There is some strong scientific evidence that it is effective for mild to moderate depression. St. John's wort is also used for symptoms of menopause and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. St. John's wort might cause serious interactions with some medications.

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Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

Is a vitamin, also called vitamin B1. Vitamin B1 is found in many foods including yeast, cereal grains, beans, nuts, and meat. It is often used in combination with other B vitamins, and found in many vitamin B complex products. Thiamine is also used for boosting the immune system, digestive problems, diabetic pain, heart disease, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

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Riboflavin (Vitamin B2)

It is involved in many processes in the body and is necessary for normal cell growth and function. It can be found in certain foods such as milk, meat, eggs, nuts, enriched flour, and green vegetables. Riboflavin is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in vitamin B complex products. Some people take riboflavin by mouth to prevent low levels of riboflavin (riboflavin deficiency) in the body, for various types of cancer, and for migraine headaches. It is also taken by mouth for acne, muscle cramps, burning feet syndrome, carpal tunnel syndrome, and blood disorders such as congenital methemoglobinemia and red blood cell aplasia. Some people use riboflavin for eye conditions including eye fatigue, cataracts, and glaucoma.

Some people also take riboflavin by mouth to maintain healthy hair, skin, and nails, to slow aging, for canker sores, multiple sclerosis, memory loss including Alzheimer's disease, high blood pressure, burns, liver disease, and sickle cell anemia.

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Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12)

Vitamin B12 is an essential nutrient that helps the body create DNA, nourishes the brain and nervous system, and assists with the formation of healthy red blood cells. The nutrient occurs naturally in meat, fish, and dairy products, and can be created in a laboratory. Some people lack a protein that helps the body absorb vitamin B12 from foods and supplements. A lack of B12 can put you at higher risk for a specific type of anemia that makes you feel weak and tired.

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L-Theanine

Is an amino acid found most commonly in tea leaves and in small amounts in Bay Bolete mushrooms. It can be found in both green and black tea. It’s also available in pill or tablet form at many drugstores.

Research indicates that L-theanine promotes relaxation without drowsiness. Many people take L-theanine to help ease stress and unwind.

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L-arginine HCI

Is one form of arginine, an amino acid that is one of the building blocks of protein. Arginine is a non-essential amino acid because most humans can make it in their bodies. Infants and children may not be able to synthesize enough of it, but it is present in many protein-rich foods. L-arginine is present in most human tissues and bodily fluids. It plays a role in ridding the body of waste. It may also combat fatigue and boost the immune system. One of the most important roles that L-arginine plays in the body is the production of nitric oxide. Because nitric oxide relaxes blood vessels, researchers hoped L-arginine supplements might help people with heart and circulatory problems. They have done many studies with arginine, but results have been mixed.

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L-Citrulline (as I-canitine I-Tartrate)

Citrulline, also commonly referred to as L-citrulline, is a non-essential amino acid. It’s considered non-essential because your body makes it on its own, specifically in the liver and intestines. It also exists in some foods, including watermelon, where it was first discovered. The name “citrulline” comes from the Latin “Citrullus,” which translates to watermelon. Unlike other amino acids, citrulline doesn’t build proteins. Instead, it plays an important role in the urea cycle, helping your body to get rid of harmful substances, particularly ammonia. It also plays an important role in widening your blood vessels (vasodilation) and may play a part in muscle building. While the human body makes citrulline, some people increase their numbers by eating foods with the nutrient in them. Some people may also take citrulline supplements to improve athletic performance. Supplements go by a couple of different names: L-citrulline and citrulline malate. Citrulline malate is a mix of citrulline and DL-malate, a compound that may help turn food into energy.

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Maca Root

Is high in carbs and rich in a number of nutrients, including vitamin C, copper and iron. It also contains many bioactive plant compounds. Maca increases sex drive in both men and women. Maca can improve symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes and disrupted sleep at night. Maca may improve your mental well-being and mood by reducing depression and anxiety, especially in menopausal women. Supplementing with maca may improve exercise performance, particularly during endurance events. However, its effects on muscle mass and strength have yet to be studied. Maca is considered safe for most people, although those with thyroid issues need to be careful.

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Tongka Ali

Is an herbal medicine derived from the Southeast Asian Eurycoma longifolia shrub. It contains several potentially beneficial compounds and is used to treat a variety of ailments, including male infertility and infections. Studies show that tongkat ali may boost testosterone levels and help treat infertility in men, relieve stress, and possibly increase muscle mass. Still, more extensive research is needed. Tongkat ali appears to be safe in doses of 200–400 mg per day for most healthy adults. However, it’s unknown whether tongkat ali is safe for pregnant or breastfeeding women. Tongkat ali may boost low testosterone, combat anxiety, and improve body composition, but research is limited. Check with your healthcare provider before taking this supplement.

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Caffeine Anhydrouse

Is a nervous system stimulant that clears drowsiness and gives you an energy boost. Caffeine is such an effective stimulant that many people are using a highly concentrated caffeine powder, or caffeine anhydrous, to stimulate athletic performance or weight loss.

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Guarana Seed Extract

Contains caffeine, theobromine, tannins, saponins, catechins and other compounds that have antioxidant properties. Guarana is rich in caffeine, which can reduce fatigue and improve focus. Caffeine blocks the effects of adenosine, a compound that makes you feel drowsy and helps your brain relax. Low doses of guarana can improve mood, learning and memory. Compounds in guarana, along with caffeine, are responsible for these effects. Guarana contains caffeine, which may aid weight loss by boosting metabolism. It has also been found to suppress genes that aid fat cell production and promote genes that slow it down. However, more human-based studies are needed. Guarana may aid heart health by improving blood flow and preventing blood clots. It can also decrease the oxidation of “bad” LDL cholesterol. Guarana has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, making it a common additive in cosmetic products. It may aid blood flow to your skin, reduce damage linked to aging and minimize undesirable features, such as saggy skin and wrinkles.

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Panax Ginseng Root Extract

Has been shown to help reduce inflammatory markers and help protect against oxidative stress. Ginseng has been shown to benefit mental functions, feelings of calmness and mood in both healthy people and those with Alzheimer’s disease. Ginseng may help fight fatigue and enhance physical activity by lowering oxidative damage and increasing energy production in cells. While ginseng appears to be safe, people taking certain medications should pay attention to possible drug interactions.

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Creatine Monohydrate

Is a chemical that is found in the body. It is found mostly in muscles but also in the brain. It is also found in foods such as red meat and seafood. Creatine can also be made in the laboratory. Creatine is most commonly used for improving exercise performance and increasing muscle mass in athletes and older adults. There is some science supporting the use of creatine in improving the athletic performance of young, healthy people during brief high-intensity activity such as sprinting. Because of this, creatine is often used as a dietary supplement to improve muscle strength and athletic performance. In addition to improving athletic performance and muscle strength, creatine is taken by mouth for muscle cramps, multiple sclerosis (MS), depression, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

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Cocoa Bean Extract

Is rich in polyphenols, which have significant health benefits, including reduced inflammation and improved cholesterol levels. Studies reveal that cocoa is rich in flavanols, which lower blood pressure by improving nitric oxide levels and blood vessel function. Cocoa containing between 30–1,218 mg of flavanols can reduce blood pressure by an average of 2 mmHg. Cocoa can improve blood flow and reduce cholesterol. Flavanols in cocoa can support neuron production, brain function and improve blood flow and supply to brain tissue. Cocoa may exert some positive effects on mood and symptoms of depression by reducing stress levels and improving calmness, contentment and overall psychological well-being. It also promotes healthy skin by protecting it from sunlight and improving circulation, the skin surface and hydration.

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Magnesium (as magnesium citrate)

Is a good source of magnesium ions that are needed throughout the body. Magnesium is needed in every tissue in the body. It works with nucleic acids to produce energy, and it is involved in more than 300 enzyme systems that regulate protein production, signal transmission in nerves and muscles, blood pressure, blood glucose, and other functions.

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Melatonin

Studies show that melatonin can lengthen total sleep time, shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep and enhance sleep quality in children and adults. Seasonal depression may be related to changes in your body’s circadian rhythm. One study found that melatonin capsules may help reduce symptoms, but other research is inconclusive.

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Chamomile Flower

Contains antioxidants that may promote sleepiness, and drinking chamomile tea has been shown to improve overall sleep quality. Chamomile tea may protect against diarrhea, stomach ulcers, nausea and gas, likely due to its anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile tea may promote blood sugar control. Chamomile is a great source of flavone antioxidants that may play a role in improving heart health.

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Valerian

Is an herb that may help improve sleep, promote relaxation and reduce anxiety. It appears to be safe and non-habit forming when taken at the recommended dosage. In some cases, it may be able to replace benzodiazepines and similar drugs.

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Passion Flower

Some studies suggest it may help relieve anxiety and insomnia.

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Lemon balm

With valerian may help relieve restlessness and sleep disorders such as insomnia. There’s also research to suggest that lemon balm can be used to relieve menstrual cramps and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Lemon balm may also be useful in treating headaches, especially if they’re happening as a result of stress. Its relaxing properties can help you to unwind, release tension, and relax your muscles. It’s also though that ingesting the herb can help to open up and relax tight blood vessels, which can contribute to headaches.

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Bacopa Monnieri Extract

Contains active compounds called bacosides, which have been shown to have antioxidant effects, especially in the brain. Animal and human studies show that Bacopa monnieri may help improve memory, attention, and the ability to process visual information. Bacopa monnieri may help reduce ADHD symptoms, such as restlessness and self-control, but more large-scale human studies are needed. Bacopa monnieri is generally safe, but some people may experience nausea, stomach cramps, and diarrhea. Pregnant women should avoid this herb, while those on medications should speak with their healthcare provider before taking it.

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Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract

Contains potent antioxidants, which fight the damaging effects of free radicals and may be behind most of its health claims. Ginkgo has the ability to reduce inflammation caused by various conditions. This may be one of the reasons it has such broad health applications. Ginkgo can increase blood flow by promoting the dilation of blood vessels. This may have applications for the treatment of diseases related to poor circulation. Some research shows that ginkgo may improve mental performance in healthy people, but the data is inconsistent. Some research shows that ginkgo may help treat anxiety, though this is likely due to its antioxidant content. Because of its ability to increase blood flow and reduce inflammation, ginkgo may be an effective treatment for some types of headaches.

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L-Glutamic Acid HCI

N-Acetyl

N-acetyl glucosamine is a chemical that comes from the outer shells of shellfish. It can also be made in labs. N-acetyl glucosamine is used for osteoarthritis, diabetes, aging skin, knee pain, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses.

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DMAE

Is a compound that many people believe can positively affect mood, enhance memory, and improve brain function. It’s also thought to have benefits for aging skin. You may have heard it referred to as Deanol and many other names.

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Coffee Whole Fruit Extract

Coffee fruit is loaded with beneficial antioxidants and polyphenols. Antioxidants help neutralize harmful compounds called free radicals, which can otherwise contribute to cell damage and chronic disease over time. In particular, the fruit is high in antioxidant compounds like rutin and chlorogenic, protocatechuic, and gallic acids

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Huperzine A

Is a chemical extracted from Chinese club moss or fir club moss plants. Huperzine A increases levels of a chemical called acetylcholine. This seems to help in diseases that interfere with memory and thinking (dementia), and in the muscle disease, myasthenia gravis.

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L-Glutamine

While our body makes the glutamine it needs to function, it may require more when stressed from injury or illness. Many clinical studies show that glutamine helps ease the effects of cancer treatments, like muscle wasting, oral inflammation, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Supplementation is also linked with shorter hospital stays and lower mortality rates for sick patients.

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N-Acetyl

N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) is used by the body to build antioxidants. Antioxidants are vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that protect and repair cells from damage.

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L-Tyrosine

Is one form of the amino acid tyrosine. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that you don't have to get it from food. The body manufactures it, using another amino acid, phenylalanine. You may see tyrosine sold in supplement form with or without the "L." Tyrosine is present in all tissues of the human body and in most of its fluids. It helps the body produce enzymes, thyroid hormones, and the skin pigment melanin. It also helps the body produce neurotransmitters that helps nerve cells communicate. Tyrosine is particularly important in the production of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Most people do not need to take L-tyrosine because their bodies have a mechanism for regulating tyrosine supply. If you do not consume enough tyrosine from food, your body can make more. If you consume too much, your body will break it down and get rid of it.

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L-Carnitine HCI

Helps make energy in your body. Most carnitine comes from the liver and kidneys, but you also get some from food. L-carnitine is a popular supplement for athletes. However, studies have not found that it helps improve sports performance, muscle adaptions, or endurance.

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Aloe Vera Leaf

Consuming aloe vera may benefit your digestive tract and help to soothe and cure stomach ailments, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Additionally, aloe vera may help inhibit the growth of H. pylori bacteria, which is found in your digestive tract and can lead to ulcers.

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Psyllium Husk

Is a bulk-forming laxative. This means it soaks up water in your gut and makes bowel movements much easier and can help promote regularity without increasing flatulence. It can be used as a one-off to ease constipation, or it can be added to your diet to help promote regularity and overall digestive health. People with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and Crohn’s disease are all too familiar with bowel irregularity. The results of studies on psyllium’s effectiveness in treating these conditions are still mixed. Psyllium is a prebiotic — a substance needed for healthy colonies of probiotics to grow in the gut.

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Senna Leaf Extract

Is an FDA-approved over-the-counter (OTC) laxative. A prescription is not required to purchase senna. It is used to treat constipation and also to clear the bowel before diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy. Senna is also used for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), anal or rectal surgery, tears in the lining of the anus (anal fissures), hemorrhoids, and weight loss.

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Flax Seed

Are good sources of many nutrients. Their health benefits are mainly due to their content of omega-3 fats, lignans and fiber. Flax seeds are a rich source of the omega-3 fatty acid ALA. Plant-based ALA fatty acids are proven to have heart health benefits and are linked to a lower risk of stroke. With so much fiber packed in each tiny seed, adding flax seeds to your diet promotes regular bowel movements and can improve your digestive health. Flax seeds are a good source of plant-based protein and can be an alternative protein source for people who do not eat meat. Flax seeds keep you full for longer and may help you manage your weight by controlling your appetite.

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Cascara Sagrada Bark

Contains chemicals that stimulate the bowel and have a laxative effect.

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Lactobacillus acidophilus

Consumed on its own, in milk or yogurt or in combination with prebiotics may help lower cholesterol. L. acidophilus probiotics may improve symptoms of IBS, such as abdominal pain and bloating. L. acidophilus can support gut health by increasing the amounts of healthy bacteria in the intestines.

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Medium Chain Trigleycerides

(MCTs) are partially man-made fats. The name refers to the way the carbon atoms are arranged in their chemical structure. MCTs are generally made by processing coconut and palm kernel oils in the laboratory. Usual dietary fats, by comparison, are long-chain triglycerides. People use MCTs as medicine. MCTs are taken by mouth or given with a needle alone or along with usual medications for involuntary weight loss in people who are very ill (cachexia or wasting syndrome). MCTs are also used for obesity, seizures, athletic performance, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these other uses.

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Cayenne Pepper Fruit

The capsaicin in cayenne peppers may help boost your metabolism. The capsaicin in cayenne peppers may help reduce your hunger, helping you eat less throughout the day. Cayenne peppers may help improve your digestive health and reduce your risk of stomach ulcers.Capsaicin has powerful pain relief properties. It relieves pain by reducing the amount of substance P that your body produces. Cayenne peppers are generally safe to eat. However, if you take blood thinners or blood pressure medication, check with your doctor before trying cayenne peppers or capsaicin cream.

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Peppermint Leaf

Has been shown to relax muscles in your digestive system and improve various digestive symptoms. Therefore, peppermint tea may provide similar benefits. While no evidence exists that peppermint tea improves headache symptoms, research suggests that peppermint oil reduces tension headaches and migraines. Drinking peppermint tea may reduce the intensity and length of menstrual cramps since peppermint helps prevent muscle contractions. Studies confirm that peppermint effectively fights several types of bacteria, including those that cause food-borne illnesses and contagious illnesses.

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